References

Sepsis References

Remick DG. Pathophysiology of Sepsis. American Society for Investigative Pathology. 2007;170(5):1435-1444.

Hall MJ, Williams SN, DeFrances CJ et al. “Inpatient Care for Septicemia or Sepsis: A Challenge for Patients and Hospitals.” Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; [2011 Jun 22; 2016 Jan 15]. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db62.htm

CDC. “Sepsis: Data Reports.” Atlanta GA: CDC; [2014 May 22; 2016 Jan 15]. http://www.cdc.gov/sepsis/datareports/index.html

Angus DC, van der Poll T. Severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2013; 369:840-851.

Heron M. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2011. National Vital Statistics Reports. 2015; 64(7): 1-96.

Martin GS, Mannino DM, Eaton S, et al. Epidemiology of Sepsis in the United States from 1979 through 2000. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:1546-54.

Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Rhodes A et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012. Critical Care Medicine. 2013; 41(2):1-61.

Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S et al. Early Goal-Directed Therapy in the Treatment of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock. N Engl J Med. 2001; 345(19): 1368-77.

Lu TC, Tsai CL, Lee CC et al. Preventable deaths in patients admitted from emergency department. Emerg Med J. 2006; 23: 452-455.

Nafsi T, Russell R, Reid CM et al. Audit of deaths less than a week after admission through an emergency department: how accurate was the ED diagnosis and were any deaths preventable? Emerg Med J. 2007; 24: 691-695.

Goulet H, Guerand V, Bloom B et al. Unexpected death within 72 hours of emergency department visit: were those deaths preventable? Critical Care. 2005; 19:154.

Wilson RF, Thal AP, Kindling PH et al. Hemodynamic Measurements in Septic Shock. Arch Surg. 1965; 91: 121-129.

Randolph A, McCulloh RJ. Pediatric sepsis: Important considerations for diagnosing and managing severe infections in infants, children, and adolescents. Virulence; 5(1): 179-189.

 

Heart failure references

Singh H, Giardina TD, Meyer AND, et al. Types and Origins of Diagnostic Errors in Primary Care Settings. Jama Intern Med. 2013; 173(6): 418-425.

Cohn JN (1980). Systemic Vascular Resistance: Regulation and Effect on Left Ventricular Function. In Sonnenblick EH and Parmley WW (Eds.), Captopril and Hypertension (pp. 77-86). New York: Plenum Publishing.

Amin A. Hospitalizaed Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: Recognition, Risk Stratification, and Treatment Review. J of Hosp Med. 2008; 3(6): S16-S24.

American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – 2015 Update. Circ. 2015; 131:e29-e322.

Cotter G, Moshkovitz Y, Milovanov O, et al. Acute heart failure: a novel approach to its pathogenesis and treatment. European J of Heart Failure. 2002; 4: 227-234.

Cotter G, Moshkovitz Y, Kaluski E, et al. The role of cardiac power and systemic vascular resistance in the pathophysiology and diagnosis of patients with acute congestive heart failure. European J of Heart Failure. 2003; 5: 443-451.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.  “What Causes Heart Failure?” NIH: [2015 Nov 6; 2016 Jan 20]. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hf/causes

Galdo JA, Riggs AR, Morris AL. Acute Decompensated Heart Failure. US Pharmacist. 2013; 38(2_:HS-2-HS-8.

Harrison K. “How Does the Body Regulate Blood Pressure?” LiveStrong: [2010 Mar 23; 2016 Jan 20]. http://www.livestrong.com/article/90570-body-regulate-blood-pressure/

Mangini S, Pires PV, Braga FGM, et al. Decompensated heart failure. Einstein. 2013; 11(3): 383-91.

Hunt SA, Baker DW, Chin MH et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for the evaluation and management of chronic heart failure in the adult: Executive summary. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Revise the 1995 Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure). Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2001;38(7):2101-2113.

Nieminen MS, Harjola V. Definition and Epidemiology of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes. Am J Cardiol. 2005;96[suppl]:5G-10G.

Joseph SM, Cedars AM, Ewald GA et al. Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: Contemporary Medical Management. Texas Heart Institute Journal. 2009; 36(6): 510-20.

Kirkwood AF, Fonarow GC, Emerman CL et al. Characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized for heart failure in the United States: Rationale, design, and preliminary observations from the first 100,000 cases in the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry (ADHERE). American Heart Journal. 2005; 149:209-16.